Research and Development
The R&D activity of Epitech Group is based on a network system able to create highly effective functional connections between its internal structures and the public Research Groups of absolute excellence operating in sectors strategically selected.
This intensive R&D cooperation started in the early 90s when, together with the research group of a prominent Italian scientist and Nobel Prize for Medicine, Rita Levi Montalcini, it has been clarified and understood the importance of a modulatory intervention on the non-neuronal cells (Mast cell, Microglia and Astrocyte) with the aim of attenuate Neuroinflammation, Pain and Neurodegeneration determined by various diseases.
Professor Montalcini guessed, and confirmed, the biological mechanism regulating non-neuronal cells, that she coined ALIA (Autacoid Local Injury Antagonism)1.
Following this extraordinary insight, it was discovered, by our research laboratories, the regulatory function of Palmitoylethanolamide (endogenous lipid), exerted at first on the Mast cell and later on, with the contribution of International Researchers, on Microglia and on Astrocyte2,3.
Then, on a clinical level, arose the need to render the Palmitoylethanolamide active, thus absorbable. This lipophilic compound in its naive physical state (post-production) exhibits particle dimensions too large (from 2000 µm to 50 µm) to guarantee the physiological gastroenteric absorption, therefore its activity on non-neuronal cells.
This has been overcome. The reduction of the Palmitoylethanolamide particle size is possible through the patented technological advancement of the micronization process, developed by our Research Laboratories. Micronization allows to reduce the size up to 1000 times more and to produce two active and highly safe formulations of Palmitoylethanolamide4:
- Micronized PALMITOYLETHANOLAMIDE (PEA-m: particle size range 2 ± 6 micron) allows an optimal gastroenteric absorption and reaches with efficacious concentration the hyper-reactive mast cell.
- Ultra-micronized PALMITOILETANOLAMIDE (PEA-um: particle size range 0,8 ± 2 micron) capable to go across both intestinal mucosa and Blood-spinal cord and Brain barriers reaching with efficacious concentration Microglia and Astrocyte.
- Aloe L, Leon A, Levi-Montalcini R. A proposed autacoid mechanism controlling mastocyte behaviour. Agents Actions. 1993;39 Spec No:C145-7. doi: 10.1007/BF01972748.
- Skaper SD, Facci L, Giusti P. Glia and mast cells as targets for palmitoylethanolamide, an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective lipid mediator. Mol Neurobiol. 2013 Oct;48(2):340-52. doi: 10.1007/s12035-013-8487-6.
- Scuderi C, Esposito G, Blasio A, Valenza M, Arietti P, Steardo L Jr, Carnuccio R, De Filippis D, Petrosino S, Iuvone T, Di Marzo V, Steardo L. Palmitoylethanolamide counteracts reactive astrogliosis induced by β-amyloid peptide. J Cell Mol Med. 2011 ;15(12):2664-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2011.01267.x.
- Impellizzeri D, Bruschetta G, Cordaro M, Crupi R, Siracusa R, Esposito E, Cuzzocrea S. Micronized/ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide displays superior oral efficacy compared to nonmicronized palmitoylethanolamide in a rat model of inflammatory pain. J Neuroinflammation. 2014;11:136. doi: 10.1186/s12974-014-0136-0.